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Southern Heritage <br>News and Views

Saturday, January 13, 2018

The Mind of the North

By Mike C. Tuggle on Apr 20, 2015
In my opinion, the single best short summary of the political and cultural differences between North and South appears in the movie Ride with the Devil, starring Tobey Maguire.

Ride with the Devil is powerful, visually striking movie set during the guerilla war in Missouri during the War for Southern Independence. In one scene, Tobey Maguire’s character, a Southern guerilla fighter, spends an evening away from the bitter fighting in the home of a Southern sympathizer named Evans. Evans pours drinks for his two guests, who are extremely appreciative of Evans’ hospitality. Despite their attempts to avoid the subject, they start talking about how the war is going.
Evans nods thoughtfully, then predicts the Yankees will win. He asks his startled guests if they’d ever seen Lawrence, Kansas. They reply they have not. Evans tells his guests what he’d seen in the town while it was under construction:
As I watched those Northerners building that town, I witnessed the seeds of our own destruction being sown. I’m not speaking of abolitionist trouble-making, or even the number of Northerners. It was the school. Before they built the church, they built that schoolhouse. Then they brought in every farmer’s son and every farmer’s daughter and made sure they would think and live the same free-thinking way they do, without regard to station, or stature, or custom, or propriety. That’s when I realized that the Yankees will surely win, because they believe everyone must live and think just like them. We don’t want to make everyone be like us. We shall surely lose because we don’t care how other people live-we just take care of ourselves.

As Evans says, Southerners tend to mind their own business and let things be. Northerners, on the other hand, must remake things to suit them better, and to impose their way of doing things on others. As Admiral Raphael Semmes of the CSS Alabama once put it, “The Yankee is compelled to toil to make the world go around.” So what made Yankees that way?
The short answer is “The Puritans.” In Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America (America: a cultural history), David Hackett Fischer describes how the culture of the Northeast was defined by its Puritan settlers. Fischer describes that cultural migration as “East Anglia to Massachusetts.”
The South, on the other hand, was essentially a Puritan-free zone. In the migration pattern he named “The South of England to Virginia,” Fischer identified the demographics of the coastal South as “Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants (Gentry influenced the Southern United States’ plantation culture).” Fischer characterized the demographics of the inner and mountain South as “The Flight from North Britain (Scotch-Irish, or border English, influenced the Western United States’ ranch culture and the Southern United States’ common agrarian culture.”
The Puritans, both in England and in New England, rejected traditional society, just as they had originally rejected the traditional church. Their doctrine of “total depravity” saw all institutions as infected by sin. Here is how A. J. Conyers describes the Puritan crusade in his book, The Long Truce: How Toleration Made the World Safe for Power and Profit
Their zeal drove them to criticism of existing orders and institutions, fueling the wish for deliverance from the effects of human depravity. Driven in this direction, they were tempted by the same dualism that Christians of all ages have entertained. It is a kind of Gnostic style of theologizing that finds no good in the created order, in human nature, or in the institutions arising in such a world. For the gnostic–and, for the Puritan—Christianity is altogether a theology of redemption without the inclusion of a theology of creation.
The Puritans were members of the Church of England who wanted to purify the Church of non-Biblical elements. They wanted to eliminate all the practices they viewed as holdovers from the Catholic Church, which the Puritans referred to as “popery,” including the ritual robes of the priests, the various ceremonies practiced, and the overall focus and purpose of the Church. They rejected the traditional aspects of worship that did not conform to the Bible, and therefore made the Bible the exclusive reference point of their religious practices.
The Puritans not only made their reading of the Bible central to their religious practices; they went so far as to make the Bible and their understanding of it as the exclusive authority for all religious questions. They intellectualized religion to the point of excluding all tradition and custom. As a matter of fact, the Puritans came to see religion as exclusively within the realm of the mind. Education came to be the key to salvation, and this of course established and legitimized the Puritan belief that lack of formal education equated to sinfulness.
The Puritan way of thinking eventually secularized. Ralph Waldo Emerson was a proponent of the transformed New England ideal. Emerson, a former Unitarian minister, acknowledged that his aunt, Mary Moody Emerson, a devout Puritan, exerted the greatest influence on his life. Here is what Emerson said in his 1838 address at the Harvard Divinity School:
Build therefore your own world, a correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature .. a dominion such as now is beyond the dream of God.
Could Emerson have been any clearer in expressing the radical difference between the secularized Puritan worldview and the traditions of Aquinas and Aristotle? Those traditions, which respected hierarchy and social customs as invaluable sources of stability, continued to be embraced by Southerners, who saw themselves as stewards of God’s creation, and believed that traditional society is the result of God’s patient hand. Where Southerners saw mystery and beauty in the world, Northerners saw only chaos and untapped raw materials.
Southern religion, and therefore the entire Southern worldview, appreciates the richness of both the physical and the spiritual. We believe that both belong to God. Therefore, unlike the Puritan, we do not believe that “things” are inherently evil. Tobacco, food, alcohol, and guns, to name a few examples, are not evil in and of themselves. Evil people can abuse those things, but Southerners know that these things can be not only useful, but enjoyable.
Southerners, as a whole, appreciate nature, and tend to the agrarian belief that nature is to be both enjoyed and preserved. We accept the world as it is given to us, and believe it is our duty to find our place in it and accept our responsibilities. As stated in the original introduction of I’ll Take My Stand in 1929: “Religion can hardly expect to flourish in an industrial society. Religion is our submission to the general intention of a nature that is fairly inscrutable; it is the sense of our role as creatures within it.” Anne C. Loveland, in her book Southern Evangelicals and the Social Order, 1800-1860 wrote that Southerners are “as dubious of human ability in social and political matters as in the matter of salvation. The belief in the sovereignty of God and dependence of man was the whole of their thinking.”
Here is how Richard Weaver once described the Southern spiritual tradition: “Piety comes to us as a warning voice that we must think as mortals, that it is not for us either to know all or to control all. It is a recognition of our own limitations and a cheerful acceptance of the contingency of nature, which gives us the protective virtue of humility.”
This helps us understand some of the pronouncements coming from Barney Frank, Hillary Clinton, and the like. These people, and their followers, really believe that there is no justice, no order, no value in traditional society. If any good is to be had, it must be imposed from the outside, by force, by the ultimate sovereign, which is Big Government.
By understanding what happened to the Calvinist Puritans, we can better understand why it is true that, “The Yankee is compelled to toil to make the world go around.” It’s because of the old Puritan belief that the natural world is evil and corrupt, and that all goodness and order come from the mind-spirit of the universe that only the elite can comprehend. According to this worldview, there is no culture whatsoever in traditional society, no barn dances, no singalongs, no folk art whatsoever until Big Government creates a museum and imports artists from New York to provide cultural uplift to the unwashed masses.
And since there are no natural bonds between people, any talk about heritage and kinship as a basis for social order is illogical sentimentality. The only thing people have in common is the shared desire to make money and protect their lives and property. Since economics trumps all other considerations, why shouldn’t we open our borders to all comers? And the thought process is the same even when they call themselves neo-conservatives, which is nothing more than another name for the same ideology wrapped in the language of conservatism.
That’s why we should appreciate what gives the Southern worldview its vitality and its uniqueness, and be ready to defend it. We must defend it because it is the only barrier to the predatory Puritan mindset. That mindset, as Evans warned in Ride With the Devil, is bound to make everyone conform, and that means the end of authentic culture and freedom.
About Mike C. Tuggle
M. C. Tuggle is a writer in Charlotte, North Carolina, whose short stories have appeared in several publications. The Novel Fox published his novella Aztec Midnight in 2014. His next book, The Genie Hunt, is a tribute to Manly Wade Wellman’s Southern tales, and will be published this summer. He blogs at

Thursday, January 11, 2018

Forrest’s Statue and Crocodile Tears

Hal Rounds

Observations of a Citizen

While on our Christmas visit with our daughter and the grandkids, one granddaughter took to disruptive behavior that mommy had to stop. Immediately upon the toy being taken away, the youngster began to cry harshly, with tears dripping down her angrily rosy cheeks. She was not in pain, nor had she any cause for grief. She was just angry and frustrated at being stopped. Moments later, all was OK

There is a difference between tears of pain and sorrow, and tears of rage. The illegal attack on the statue of General Nathan Bedford Forrest by Mayor Jim Strickland and the Memphis city council helps us understand this difference when it is exhibited by adults.

Many of the monument attackers seem to argue that occasionally seeing the statue makes them feel pain and suffering. To see whether their figurative tears are ones of suffering, or something else, we need to look closely at the circumstances.

What is General Forrest doing, and what is he wearing on the monument in Memphis (or all his other monuments, for that matter?) It is not the mythical supervisor’s whip and garb of the slave-owner. It is not the white hood of the klansman. No one celebrates that. For that matter, no one celebrates his contributions to the economy of Memphis and the South by helping organize a new railroad, or advocate unity among whites and blacks as the South turned to rebuild after the Yankee depredations, either.

He is mounted on a cavalry horse, and wearing a military uniform. That is the role celebrated by his statue. That is the mark Forrest made on history, a mark that is studied to this day to instruct our military in ways to defend our freedoms when war falls upon us. What was he fighting?

His uniform is the uniform of an army fighting an invader from the North. Many serious depredations were inflicted by that army upon Forrest’s homeland and his neighbors. General Ulysses Grant was one commander of the Yankee occupation forces that Forrest was fighting. Perhaps the most notorious act of abuse by Grant was “General Order 11: The Jews, as a class… are hereby expelled from the Department (of Tennessee) within 24 hours from the receipt of this order… any one returning after notification will be arrested … as prisoners…”

Though this 1862 act is not taught in the usual Civil War history courses, it was a problem for Grant later. An 1882 political cartoon showed Grant in a crocodile skin, shedding tears for the abuses of the Jews by the Russians. The comments compared his abuse of the Jews in Yankee-occupied Tennessee to his hypocritical sympathy for the Jews suffering in Russia. They were crocodile tears, not tears of real sympathy.

Was it wrong for a general to fight such abuses by an invader? Or was it heroic to do so against such unfavorable odds, and to win so often? Is it wrong to celebrate that heroism in a troubled time?

The Forrest haters demand that the only periods of Forrest’s life that can be exposed to the public are the periods they deem evil. It is censorship. They argue that their cause is propelled with tears. Perhaps – but they are not tears of anguish. They are tears of rage.

The role for which Forrest is honored by his memorial is also the role that so desperately stirs the anger and hatred of those who demand that only their take on history be allowed. They do not want us to remember the sacrifices and successes of a renowned military leader, because these things interfere with the image they insist we accept.

They broke laws to take that statue down, like a child disrupting what could otherwise be a peaceful event. That behavior requires a firm disciplinary response.

In this case, “mom” has to be the Tennessee Attorney General, or, failing that, the Tennessee State Assembly.

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Happy Birthday General Robert E. Lee

By Calvin E. Johnson, Jr.

Sir Winston Churchill once said, ‘Lee was the noblest American who had ever lived and one of the greatest commanders known to the annals of war.’

Do young people still hear stories about George Washington, Booker T. Washington and Robert E. Lee? There was a time when schools and businesses closed in respect for the birthday of one of the South’s favorite sons -Robert E. Lee.

Friday, January 19, 2018, is the 211th birthday of Robert E. Lee, whose memory still weighs dear in the hearts of many Southerners. Why is this man so honored in the South and respected in the North? Lee was even respected by the soldiers of Union blue who fought against him during the War Between the States.

What is your community doing to remember this great man?

During Robert E. Lee's 100th birthday in 1907, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., a former Union Commander and grandson of US President John Quincy Adams, spoke in tribute to Robert E. Lee at Washington and Lee College's Lee Chapel in Lexington, Virginia. His speech was printed in both Northern and Southern newspapers and is said to had lifted Lee to a renewed respect among the American people.

Dr. Edward C. Smith, respected African-American Professor of History at American University in Washington, D.C., told the audience in Atlanta, Georgia during a 1995 Robert E. Lee birthday event, 'Dr. Martin Luther King and Robert E. Lee were individuals worthy of emulation because they understood history.'

Booker T. Washington, America's great African-American Educator, wrote in 1910, 'The first white people in America, certainly the first in the South to exhibit their interest in the reaching of the Negro and saving his soul through the medium of the Sunday-school were Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.'

American Presidents who have paid tribute to Lee include: Franklin D. Roosevelt, who spoke during the 1930s at a Robert E. Lee statue dedication in Dallas, Texas, Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower who proudly displayed a portrait of Lee in his presidential office.

During a tour through the South in 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt told the aged Confederate Veterans in Richmond, Virginia, 'Here I greet you in the shadow of the statue of your Commander, General Robert E. Lee. You and he left us memories which are part of the memories bequeathed to the entire nation by all the Americans who fought in the War Between the States.'

Georgia's famous Stone Mountain carving of Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee was dedicated on May 9, 1970. William Holmes Borders, a noted African-American theologian and pastor of the Wheat Avenue Baptist Church, was asked to give the invocation. The many dignitaries attending this historic event included United States Vice President Spiro Agnew. Thousands of people bring their families each year to see this memorial to these three great Americans.

Who was Robert E. Lee that has been praised by both Black and White Americans and people from around the world?

Robert E. Lee, a man whose military tactics have been studied worldwide, was an American soldier, Educator, Christian gentlemen, husband and father. Lee said 'All the South has ever desired was that the Union, as established by our forefathers, should be preserved, and that the government, as originally organized, should be administered in purity and truth.'

Robert E. Lee was born on Jan. 19, 1807, at ' Stratford Hall ' in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The winter was cold and the fireplaces were little help for Robert's mother, Ann Hill (Carter) Lee, who suffered from a severe cold.

Ann Lee named her son 'Robert Edward' after two of her brothers.

Robert E. Lee undoubtedly acquired his love of country from those who lived during the American Revolution. His Father, 'Light Horse' Harry was a hero of the American Revolution and served three terms as governor of Virginia and as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Two members of his family also signed the Declaration of Independence.

Lee was educated at the schools of Alexandria, Virginia, and he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825. He graduated in 1829, second in his class and without a single demerit.

Robert E. Lee's first assignment was to Cockspur Island, Georgia, to supervise the construction of Fort Pulaski.

While serving as 2nd Lieutenant of Engineers at Fort Monroe, Virginia, Lee wed Mary Ann Randolph Custis. Robert and Mary had grown up together, Mary was the daughter of George Washington Parke Custis, the Grandson of Martha Washington and adopted son of George Washington.

Mary was an only child; therefore, she inherited Arlington House, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., where she and Robert E. Lee raised seven children, three boys and four girls.

Army promotions were slow. In 1836, Lee was appointed to first Lieutenant. In 1838, with the rank of Captain, Robert E. Lee fought in the War with Mexico and was wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec.

Lee was appointed Superintendent of The United States Military Academy at West Point in 1852 and is considered one of the best superintendents in that institution's history.

General Winfield Scott offered command of the Union army to Robert E. Lee on April 17, 1861, but he refused. Lee said, 'I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children.'

The Custis-Lee Mansion 'Arlington House' would be occupied by Federals, who would turn the estate into a war cemetery.

Lee served as adviser to President Jefferson Davis, and then on June 1, 1862, commanded the legendary Army of Northern Virginia.

After four terrible years of death and destruction, General Robert E. Lee met General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.

Lee was called Marse Robert, Uncle Robert and Marble Man.

Lee was a man of honor, proud of his name and heritage. After the War Between the States, he was offered $50,000 for the use of his name. His reply was: 'Sirs, my name is the heritage of my parents. It is all I have and it is not for sale.' His refusal came at a time when he had nothing.

In the fall of 1865, Lee was offered and accepted the presidency of troubled Washington College in Lexington, Virginia. The school was later renamed Washington and Lee College in his honor.

Robert E. Lee died of a stroke at 9:30 on the morning of October 12, 1870, at Washington College. His last words were 'Strike the tent.'

The church bells rang as the sad news passed through Washington College, Virginia Military Institute and the town of Lexington Virginia. He is buried at Lee Chapel on the school grounds with his family and near his favorite horse, Traveller.

On this his 211th birthday let us ponder the words he wrote to Annette Carter in 1868: 'I grieve for posterity, for American Principles and American liberty.'

Lest We Forget!

Calvin E. Johnson, Jr. is Director of the Georgia Division Sons of Confederate Veterans Confederate History and Heritage Month Program 

Friday, December 22, 2017

Gen. Hill Writes Gen. Foster

Gen. Daniel H. Hill, in a letter to a Union general.

GOLDSBOROUGH, N. C., March 24, 1863.

Maj. Gen. J.G. FOSTER, Federal Army.

SIR: Two communications have been referred to me as the successor of Gen. [Samuel G.] French. The prisoners from Swindell’s company and the Seventh North Carolina are true prisoners of war and if not paroled I will retaliate five-fold.

In regard to your first communication touching the burning of Plymouth you seem to have forgotten two things. You forget, sir, that you are a Yankee and that Plymouth is a Southern town.

It is no business of yours if we choose to burn one of our own towns. A meddling Yankee troubles himself about every body’s matters except his own and repents of everybody’s sins except his own. We are a different people. Should the Yankees burn a Union village in Connecticut or a cod-fish town in Massachusetts we would not meddle with them but rather bid them God-speed in their work of purifying the atmosphere.

Your second act of forgetfulness consists in your not remembering that you are the most atrocious house-burner as yet unsung in the wide universe.

Let me remind you of the fact that you have made two raids when you were weary of debauching in your Negro harem and when you knew that your forces outnumbered the Confederates five to one. Your whole line of march has been marked by burning churches, school-houses, private residences, barns, stables, gin-houses, Negro cabins, fences in the row, &c.

Your men have plundered the country of all that it contained and wantonly destroyed what they could not carry off.

Before you started on your freebooting expedition toward Tarborough you addressed your soldiers in the town of Washington and told them that you were going to take them to a rich country full of plunder. With such a hint to your thieves it is not wonderful that your raid was characterized by rapine, pillage, arson and murder.

Learning last December that there was but a single weak brigade on this line you tore yourself from the arms of sable beauty and moved out with 15,000 men on a grand marauding foray. You partially burned Kinston and entirely destroyed the village of White Hall.

The elegant mansion of the planter and the hut of the poor farmer and fisherman were alike consumed by your brigands. How matchless is the impudence which in view of this wholesale arson can complain of the burning of Plymouth in the heat of action!

But there is another species of effrontery which New England itself cannot excel. When you return to your harem from one of these Union-restoring excursions you write to your Government the deliberate lie that you have discovered a large and increasing Union sentiment in this State.

No one knows better than yourself that there is not a respectable man in North Carolina in any condition of life who is not utterly and irrevocably opposed to union with your hated and hateful people.  A few wealthy men have meanly and falsely professed Union sentiments to save their property and a few ignorant fishermen have joined your ranks but to betray you when the opportunity offers. No one knows better than yourself that our people are true as steel and that our poorer classes have excelled the wealthy in their devotion to our cause.

You knowingly and willfully lie when you speak of a Union sentiment in this brave, noble and patriotic State. Wherever the trained and disciplined soldiers of North Carolina have met the Federal forces you have been scattered as leaves before the hurricane.

In conclusion let me inform you that I will receive no more white flags from you except the one which covers your surrender of the scene of your lust, your debauchery and your crimes. No one dislikes New England more cordially than I do, but there are thousands of honorable men even there who abhor your career fully as much as I do.

Sincerely and truly, your enemy,

D.H. HILL, Maj. Gen., C.S. Army

Tuesday, October 31, 2017


By James W. King
SCV Camp 141 Commander Albany Georgia
In defense of the Confederate government and Confederate prison officials in regards to Andersonville, an article was published in 1876 by the Southern Historical Society, consisting of 9 points that place the blame for deaths and suffering at Andersonville totally on Northern politicians and military authorities. Specifically President Lincoln, Sec. of War Stanton, Asst. Sec. of War Dana, and Gen. Grant shoulder the blame as noted in the following 9 points.

1. It is not denied that great suffering and mortality occurred but it was due to circumstances and conditions beyond CSA control.

2. If the death rate be adduced as "circumstantial evidence of barbarity" the rate of Confederate deaths was higher in Northern POW camps where there was an abundance of food, medicine, and shelter. The Confederacy captured and held about 270,000 Union prisoners from 1861-65 and 22,576 died. The Union captured and held about 220,000 Confederate prisoners and 26,436 died.

3. The Union POW's were given the same rations as Confederate guards and soldiers and equal treatment in hospitals as required by the CSA government and the death rate of CSA guards was the same as POW's.  The Northern Federal government did not have this humane policy.

4. The exchange of prisoners was refused by the North before the issue of black Union POW's became an issue.

5. The CSA government requested that Northern doctors and medicine be sent to treat Northern POW's and the request was denied.

6. The CSA tried to buy supplies including bowls and other utensils to use in feeding the POW's. They offered to pay with cotton and gold but the offer was refused by the  Lincoln  administration.

7. The Federal Government under President Lincoln made medicine contraband causing suffering and death of Union POW's and all Southerners military and civilian.

8. Prior to the period of greatest mortality the CSA authorities offered to release the Andersonville POW's without exchange but the offer was not accepted by the Lincoln Administration who was told by CSA authorities "we cannot feed or care for them-just come get them".   Sherman  's barbaric war crimes in   Georgia   consisting of stealing, destroying, and burning made food and supplies even scarcer and increased suffering and mortality.

9. The Northern press was furnished lies and propaganda by Union Sec. and Asst Sec. of war   Stanton   and Dana claiming deliberate cruelties and war crimes by the South. The control of Northern POW camps was transferred by Stanton and Dana to vindictive partisan criminal elements and deliberate war crimes of cruelty, torture, and murder were committed against Confederate POW's as proven by a joint resolution of the U.S. Senate and House SR97.
Final proof that the human disaster at Andersonville was virtually 100% the fault of the Lincoln Administration comes from statements by Confederate Col. Ould who was in charge of arranging prisoner exchanges and Union Assistant Secretary of War in the Lincoln Administration Charles A. Dana. Col. Ould is quoted as saying “My government instructs me to waive all formalities in this matter of exchange. I need not try to conceal from you that we cannot feed and provide for the prisoners in our hands. We cannot half feed or clothe them. You have closed our ports till we cannot get medical stores for them. You will not send us quinine and other medicines, even for their exclusive use. They are suffering greatly and the mortality is excessive. I tell you all this plainly, and still you refuse to exchange. What does your government demand? Name your own conditions and I have authority to accept them. YOU ARE SILENT!  GREAT GOD, CAN IT BE THAT YOU PEOPLE ARE MONSTERS? If you will not exchange, I will give you your men for nothing. I will deliver ten thousand Union POW’s at   Wilmington  . I will deliver five thousand here. Come and get them. If your government is so damnably dishonest to want them for nothing, you shall have them. You can at least feed them and we cannot.”
Post-War in the   New York   Sun Newspaper Dana wrote “CSA authorities and especially Jefferson Davis ought not to be held responsible for Andersonville. We were responsible ourselves for the continued detention of our captives in misery, starvation and sickness in the South”.

Post-war Union General Grant admitted that he had considered the Andersonville POW’s Expendable.

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Confederates who significantly contributed to America Post-War

I am largely finished with my research on Confederate veterans who contributed to the building of postwar America. It would be impossible to research all 1,000,000 Confederate soldiers who survived the war, but I accessed all the available compendiums, biographical rosters, etc as I could identify. I would estimate that I probably checked 5,000-7,500 veterans and compiled a list of approximately 850 men who met my admittedly vague and subjective criteria. A successful farmer, teacher, or clergyman is no less important than a college president, governor, senator, or ambassador, but I had to set some limits.

Copy and pasted below is a summary letter that I recently drafted for the purpose of giving some ammunition to those who are defending our Confederate heritage and monuments. The information contained in the letter are the "highlights" of a book that I am frantically writing, with hopes that I can get it published before the anti-American History ANTIFA/Taliban have destroyed all of our monuments. Please feel free to share the letter.

I haven't yet decided exactly how I am going to organize and present the book; I want it to be more than a simple alphabetical roster of "accomplished" CSA veterans. I want to present the information in narrative form, with an extensive Appendix with rosters and groups.

Many thanks for your incredible research and information on former Confederates who made the ultimate sacrifice to their communities. If you don't mind I'll contact you again as my plans for the construction and presentation of the book takes shape.

All best,

Sam Hood


Date: Oct. 14, 2017

This is a partial list of positions held by former Confederates after the Civil War.

A Confederate veteran, Lt. Edward Douglass White of the 9th Louisiana Cavalry, became Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court after the Civil War.

Two United States Supreme Court associate justices were former Confederate soldiers; Col. Lucius Q. C. Lamar of the 19th Mississippi Infantry, and Sergeant Major Horace H. Lurton of the 3rd Kentucky Cavalry. Another associate justice, Howell E. Jackson, was a former Confederate government official.

Two former Confederates, Maj. Amos T. Akerman and Confederate Senator from Arkansas Augustus H. Garland, served as United States Attorneys General.

Former Confederate officer Col. James D. Porter was appointed United States Assistant Secretary of State in 1885.

A United States Solicitor General was Confederate cavalryman John Goode of Virginia.

Prior to becoming a Supreme Court justice, Lucius Q.C. Lamar served as United States Secretary of the Interior.

Former Confederate Col. David M. Key served as United States Postmaster General.

President Theodore Roosevelt appointed former Confederate Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn as Governor of the Panama Canal Zone.

A former Confederate soldier, Benjamin Morgan Harrod, was the United States Representative on the Panama Canal Commission.

A former Confederate, Col. Hilary A. Herbert of the 8th Alabama Infantry, became United States Secretary of the Navy.

A Confederate veteran named Patrick Henry Morgan was appointed as a district Superintendent of the United States Coast Guard.

Confederate veterans served as United States Ambassadors, Envoys, Consuls, and Ministers to Turkey (Ottoman Empire:) Brazil; Russia; Sweden-Norway; Uruguay; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Mexico; Honduras; Havana, Cuba; Bolivia; Hong Kong; Jerusalem; France; Peru; Dominican Republic; Bermuda; Japan; China; Tampico, Mexico; Ecuador; Chile, Austria-Hungary; Naples, Italy; Panama; Martinique; Venezuela; Vancouver, Canada; Colombia; Greece; Romania; Serbia, and Spain. A former Confederate, Lt. Col. Paul Francis de Gournay, was a citizen of France and became a French Consul to the United States after the Civil War, and another Confederate, Jose Agustin Quintero of Louisiana, became Consul for Belgium and Costa Rica in New Orleans.

Numerous United States Senators and members of the United States House of Representatives were Confederate veterans, including one Senate Majority Leader, Thomas Staples Martin, who co-drafted the United States Declaration of War against Germany in 1917. A former Confederate, William A. Harris, was elected United States Senator and to the U.S. House of Representatives from the strongly pro-Union state of Kansas.

Four Confederate generals served as generals in the United States Army and served in the Spanish-American War; Thomas Rosser, Matthew Butler, Joseph Wheeler, and Fitzhugh Lee, son of Robert E. Lee. Other former Confederates were appointed Generals of Volunteers during the Spanish-American War but their units were not deployed.

Numerous former Confederates fought for the United States Army and Navy, and at least one former Confederate soldier who volunteered, Lt. Col. William Crawford Smith of Tennessee, died in combat during the Philippine Insurrection.

Dozens of Confederates served as governors of the eleven seceded Southern states after the war, but also governed the non-Confederate states/territories of Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Alaska.  

Confederate veterans were elected mayors of numerous cities and towns, including the Northern cities of Los Angeles CA, Ogden UT, and Minneapolis MN.

Former Confederate Brigadier General John Stuart Williams was co-founder of the City of Naples, Florida.

An Adjutant General of Montana was former Confederate soldier, Charles William Turner.

Former Confederate Samuel Davis Shannon served as Secretary of State of Utah.

Native-American Confederate Col. Jackson F. McCurtain became Chief of the Choctaw Nation after the war.

Former Confederates became presidents of the American Bar Association, American Medical Association, American Chemical Society, American Society of Chemical Engineers, American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Philological Association (dedicated to the study of classical literature, linguistics, history, philosophy, and cultural studies.)

Former Confederate soldiers founded or co-founded approximately 20 colleges, universities, and post-graduate schools, including Mississippi State University, Texas Christian University, Southwestern University (Texas,) Coker College (South Carolina,) North Carolina State University, Millsaps College (Mississippi,) Averett College (Virginia,) East Carolina University, Blue Mountain College (Mississippi,) Clemson University, Agnes Scott Women’s College (Georgia,) the historically  black colleges, University of Arkansas-Pine Bluff, Prairie View A&M University, Alcorn State University,  and predominately black Meharry Medical School in Nashville. Former Confederates founded several postgraduate schools including the Tulane University Medical School, the University of Arkansas Medical School, and the University of California Hastings School of Law,
Confederate veterans were presidents of numerous universities, including the University of California-Berkeley, Tulane University, Louisiana State University, the University of Florida, North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, the University of Alabama, the University of Mississippi,  Mississippi State University, the University of Virginia, Virginia Tech, Virginia Military Institute, Bethel College (Clarksville, Tennessee,) the Citadel, the University of Maryland, Blue Mountain College (Mississippi,) Western Kentucky University, Shepherd College (West Virginia), Allegheny College (Pennsylvania,) the College of William and Mary, Washington and Lee University, Lander College (South Carolina,) Texas A&M University, the University of Arkansas, William Jewell College (Liberty, Missouri,) Jacksonville State University (Alabama,) Davidson College, and Randolph-Macon University. Former Confederates served on the governing boards of numerous colleges and universities, including the United States Military Academy (West Point,) and the United States Naval Academy.

A former Confederate Army surgeon in Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham’s Corps, Dr. Augustus Breysacher, delivered baby Douglas McArthur on Jan. 26, 1880. MacArthur’s father was a Union Army colonel, severely wounded by Cheatham’s Corps at the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee on Nov. 30, 1864.

A former Confederate civilian surgeon in the 15th Alabama Infantry, Dr. Albert F. A. King, contracted to serve as a Union Army surgeon late in the war and treated Abraham Lincoln after he was mortally wounded by John Wilks Booth on April 14, 1865.

Over 100 former Confederate soldiers died in the line of duty while serving as law enforcement officers after the war.

Former Confederate Joseph LeConte was a co-founder of The Sierra Club.

A former Confederate engineer, Col. Samuel Lockett, designed the base of the Statue of Liberty in New York City, and another Confederate engineer, Sergeant Major Amory Coffin, designed the structural features of some of the late 19th and early 20th Century's most famous buildings, including Madison Square Garden, New York City; the Crocker Building, San Francisco; the Provident Life and Trust Company building, Philadelphia; the Prudential Life Insurance Building, New York City; City College of New York; the Wisconsin State Capital; and the steel superstructure of the New York Stock Exchange building.

Two Confederate veterans, Col. Ambrosio Jose Gonzales, and Maj. James Lide Coker were inducted into the South Carolina Business Hall of Fame in 1986. In the year 2000 ex-Confederate senator from Florida, David Levy Yulee, was named that year’s “Great Floridian” by the Florida Department of State. Another Confederate Floridian, Col. Francis Littlebury Dancy, was a postwar agronomist and named to the Florida Citrus Hall of Fame in 2013.

Former Confederates were major postwar philanthropists. Prominent among them was former Texas cavalryman George Washington Littlefield, who funded many facilities and programs at the University of Texas-Austin, and New York City native, Maj. Lewis Ginter, who founded the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden in Richmond, Virginia, containing a Conservatory, Rose Garden, Children's Garden, Sunken Garden, Asian Garden, Victorian Garden, and Healing Garden. Ginter also donated the land for the campus of the Union Theological Seminary. Col. John Peter Smith of Ft. Worth, Texas donated land for parks, cemeteries, and hospitals, one of which still bears his name—John Peter Smith Hospital.

The most prominent of all Confederate philanthropists was Dr. Simon Baruch, a Jewish-Confederate surgeon from Charleston, South Carolina who served in the 13th Mississippi Infantry and 3rd South Carolina Infantry. After the Confederate retreat from Gettysburg, Baruch remained to treat wounded soldiers, after which he was imprisoned and exchanged. He returned to the 13th Mississippi and served for the remainder of the war. After the war Baruch practiced medicine in South Carolina, and volunteered his services for one year in the slums of New York City. Returning to South Carolina, he practiced medicine for 16 years, and in 1881 moved to New York City where he practiced medicine and became an outspoken proponent of public health and hygiene. Simon Baruch is the namesake of civil monuments, educational entities, and academic departments in New York City and throughout the country, many of which were established by his son Bernard M. Baruch, including several Simon Baruch Houses, a public housing complex in New York City, as well as buildings, halls, and academic chairs at Columbia University, Clemson University, the New York University College of Medicine, and the Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University. New York City Department of Education’s Middle School 104 is named Simon Baruch Middle School, along with an adjacent Simon Baruch Playground and Garden, under the auspices of the New York City Department of Parks. In 1940, the younger Baruch endowed in honor of his father, the Simon Baruch Auditorium building on the campus of the Medical University of South Carolina, and the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Monumental Objection

(October 8, 2017) Last Thursday evening I spoke to the Cobb County (Georgia) Civil War Roundtable and visited the Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park earlier in the day. Since my annotated and illustrated version of Confederate Private Sam Watkins’s Co. Aytch was my first Civil War book I was especially interested in visiting the battlefield’s Dead Angle. It was the Union army’s chief attack point and Sam’s was one of two defending regiments, assaulted from three sides.
For about ninety minutes on the morning of June 25, 1864 about 5,000 (mostly Illinois) Yankees attacked 1,000 Rebels at a defense line salient. Despite enduring murderous fire a minority of the attackers reached the opposing entrenchments where the fighting devolved into hand-to-hand struggles. Notwithstanding undeniable bravery, the attackers could not dislodge the defenders who were too well entrenched. Casualties totaled 825 Federals as compared to 170 Confederates.

Sam Watkins described the fighting as follows:
It seemed that the archangel of Death stood and looked on with outstretched wings, while all the earth was silent, when all at once a hundred guns from the Federal line opened upon us, and…poured their…shot, grape and shrapnel right upon [us] when, all of a sudden, our pickets jumped into our works and reported the Yankees advancing, and almost at the same time a solid line of bluecoats came up the hill.
My pen is unable to describe the scene of carnage and death that ensued…Column after column of Federal soldiers were crowded upon that line…but no sooner would a regiment mount our works than they were shot down or surrendered…
Yet still the Yankees came. It seemed impossible to check the onslaught, but every man was true to his trust…Talk about other battles…but in comparison with this day’s fight, all others dwarf into insignificance…[A] solid line of blazing fire right from the muzzles of the Yankee guns poured into our very faces, singeing our hair and clothes, the hot blood of our dead and wounded spurting on us, the blinding smoke and stifling atmosphere filling our eyes and mouths, and the awful concussion causing the blood to gush out of our noses and ears, and above all, the roar of battle, made it a perfect pandemonium.
I have heard men say that if they ever killed a Yankee during the war they were not aware of it.  I am satisfied that on this memorable day, every man in our regiment killed….All that was necessary was to load and shoot.  In fact, I will ever think that the reason they did not capture our works was the impossibility of their living men passing over the bodies of their dead.  The ground was piled up with one solid mass of dead and wounded Yankees.
Watkins went on to add, “a Yankee rushed me and said ‘You have killed my two brothers and now I’ve got you’…I heard a roar and felt a flash of fire and saw…Willam A. Hughes, grab the muzzle of the gun, receiving the whole (blast)…He died for me.
As Sam watched the litter carriers take Hughes away the dying soldier kept telling them, “Give me Florence Fleming,” his name for his rifle, which was engraved on it in silver lettering. “It was the last time I saw him,” Watkins wrote. “But I know away up yonder…in the blue vault of heaven…we will sometime meet at the marriage supper of the Son of God.”
Although twenty-first century traffic around Kennesaw is heavy, the Dead Angle is peaceful and thickly wooded.  The weathered remains of the Confederate entrenchments stand as remnants of the original earthworks much as the Appalachians are the residue of a range that was once as mighty as the Himalayas.
As I walked around the area I gradually became aware that there were no Confederate monuments. Although markers that described the action would mention both Union and Confederate participants, all the memorials were for Union soldiers. The most prominent was the Illinois monument pictured above. But there were also memorials for two slain Union generals and a third one for an unknown Federal soldier.
When I first visited the Gettysburg battlefield long ago, the spot where Joshua Chamberlain’s regiment turned back a part of the Rebel attack on Little Round Top was an obscure, seldom visited point. After Michael Shaara published The Killer Angels, however, the spot became one of the most popular sites on the park and a monument was added to memorialize Chamberlain and his troops. Even though the PBS Civil War Documentary in the early 1990's similarly popularized the Watkins memoir, there is no memorial to him and his comrades at Dead Angle.
The absence of Confederate monuments at Dead Angle reflects three factors.
First, Union veterans originally organized the site as a private park in 1898. For many years after the war Republican politicians “waved the bloody shirt” to remind Northern voters of Civil War casualties in order to gain political support among such veterans to promote hatred of Southerners, who were generally Democrats. Consequently, former Union soldiers formed the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) as their veterans association. It successfully lobbied for generous, federally funded Union veterans pensions paid from the taxes of all Americans, including their former, impoverished, Southern enemies. Not until 1890 did the GAR gradually start relaxing its advocacy for universal censorship of Confederate displays such as Rebel battle flags and Confederate statues.
Second, Southerners were too poor to pay for memorials after the war. It was not until the decades between 1890 and 1920 that they had even modest sums available while the declining influence of “bloody shirt” politics relaxed opposition thereby enabling most of the Confederate statues remaining today to be erected.
Third, the present political climate is an amplified echo of the “bloody shirt” dogma of long ago. It demands hatred toward the memory of Rebel soldiers as well as the censorship and destruction of Confederate iconography. 
Too few of us object and even fewer of those disdaining Confederate soldier memory try to understand a different viewpoint.

Philip Leigh
3911 W. San Pedro
Tampa, Florida 33629


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